Democratic Republic of Congo
In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and child mortality, with about 60 to 100 million malaria cases each year, according to 2012 data from the National Malaria Control Program. The distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LLINs) is the main method of malaria vector control in the DRC, with at least 14.5 million LLINs distributed between 2006 and 2011, and mass distribution campaigns organized every three years with donor support from USAID. The PMI AIRS Project conducts entomological monitoring and surveillance in seven sites (Kingasani, Kalemie, Katana, Mikalayi, Lodja, Kapolowe and Kabondo) in the DRC.
Entomological monitoring is a key component of vector control activities, helping to evaluate the effect of LLIN use on malaria vectors (vector density, seasonal distribution, behavior, and species composition).
In 2013, with support from the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), AIRS subcontracted with the National Institute of Biomedical Research to evaluate the effect of LLIN use on malaria vectors (i.e., vector density, seasonal distribution, behavior, identifying species composition) in four districts in DRC.
Entomological monitoring provides information such as the population dynamics of vectors, different malaria vector species, the endophily and endophagy rates, the infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum rate, the level of vector susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanism.
Project activities include:
- Training local entomologists to collect entomological data in the selected sites
- Identifying malaria vector species found in the DRC and determining their relative distribution in different geographical areas
- Determining the seasonal changes in vector density and behavior in areas with high LLIN coverage as compared to areas with low LLIN coverage
- Determining the susceptibility level of the main vector of malaria in DRC, Anopheles gambiae s.l. to all four classes of insecticides approved by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme for both LLINs and IRS in four sentinel sites
Although AIRS does not lead indoor residual spraying campaigns in DRC, AIRS works with local staff to complete entomological monitoring understand the effect of LLINs on malaria vector behavior. Read the Democratic Republic of the Congo PMI Country Profile to learn more about PMI’s malaria work.